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Edward Jacobson

May 2, 2007

A man who collect a lot of Cave Fauna in Java

DR. EDWARD R. JACOBSON

Beliau merupakan salah satu orng penting yang banyak menjelajah gua di Jawa. Beberapa spesies gua dikoleksi oleh beliau dan beberapa nama spesies gua pun di dedikasikan untuk beliau.

Seperti kepiting khas gua dari Gunung Sewu dideskripsi oleh Ihle(1912) diberi nama sesuai dengan nama beliau yaitu Sesarmoides jacobsoni Ihle. Kemudian salah satu spesies khas yang hidup di guano kelelawar juga didedikasikan untuk beliau yaitu sejenis serangga dari Ordo Dermaptera yang diberi nama Xeniaria jacobsoni (Burr, 1912) awalnya jenis ini termasuk dalam marga Arixenia. Jenis ini dikoleksi dari Gua Lawa di Purbalingga yang merupakan salah satu gua lava yang dikenal di Jawa.

Foto diambil dari de Tropische Natuur

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One Comment leave one →
  1. marjohan permalink
    February 7, 2008 3:56 pm

    chere mes amis
    Louis et anne

    je vous trouve vos noms dans internet. je dois le donne ma comment par distribiant les noms aux grottes en sumatra comme desous

    (marjohan, http://penulisbatusangkar.blogspot 085263537981 )

    Potensial Caves in Sumatra

    I am very proud that you present us regularly your tourism cover program that I know very much how exotic Indonesia is, especially west Sumatra .
    Here I also would like to inform you about the untouchable exotic sites of tourism. As my European friends , DR.Louis Deharveng (deharven@mnhn.fr), DR.Francois Brouquisse (francois.brouquisse@wanadoo.fr) and others have been vising us since 1990s and each time they complete their journey here they issue the report in “Sumatra speleologue expedition” with their emotional experiences. Then, Dr.G.M Drawhorn in February 200 wrote the inventory of potential cave site in Sumatra , and the majority cave sites are in the province of west Sumatra . They are as follow :

    Potensial Caves in Sumatra

    I. Caves in West Sumatra

    A.Caves in Suliki/ Harau Valley in Regency 50 Kota.
    1. Bukit ngalau panjang, non-karst on Bt Tarambur, north west of Suliki.
    2. Ngalau (goa) Barsidak
    3. Ngalau Bulu Balayan , 1,5 km north of Desa Harau.
    4. Bt Subalik Ngalau , 1 km east of Desa Harau . It is underground water at the top of
    Bt.Simolakama 2 km east of Desa Harau.

    B. Caves in Regency Agam (north of Bukittinggi)
    1. Ngalau Gumarang, north of Lake Maninjau , near Bukit Runcing on the Air Maur).
    2. Underground water, north of watas Tambalik.
    3. Underground water, Bukit Tunggal
    4. Underground water, Bukit Datar Kecil, morth east of Mudik Palupuh.
    5. Spring Mudik Palupuh, desa Rimbo Panjang, kampong Mudik Palupuh. No caves in
    the area- entrance seen.
    6. Hot spring, Mudik Palupuh, desa Rimbo Panjang, Kampung Mudik Palupuh, entrance
    seen.
    7. Underground water, north of Bukit Sarang Gajah.
    8. Ngalau Kamang, 1 km possibly Ngalau Sangkar Puyuh on Batang Ngalau fossil cave.
    9. Bukut Ngalau Lantai.
    10 Bukit Ngalau Panjang and ngalau Tiris.
    11.Ngalau Sangir (oral information)
    12. Ngalau Lubuk Bangku in Lubuk Bangku (oral information)
    13.Ngalau Tungkek, active cave in Desa Lareh nan Gadang (oral info)
    14. Ngalau Batu Biaro in Bukit Ngalau Panjang from Biaro (oral info)

    C. Caves in Regency Solok
    1. Ngalau Lingkaranago, active through cave, Solok
    2. Ngalau Gasing, kab. Solok, Gasing. Entrance seen.

    D. Caves in West of Payakumbuh
    1. Bukit Ngalau with Ngalau Sampik, Ngalau Kuda, Ngalau Indah Baru.
    2. Ngalau Indah, fossil cave and explored.

    3. Bukit Ngalau Cigak
    4. Bukit Ngalau Lantas
    5. Ngalau Nachoda Bincin
    6. Ngalau Sampik , north west of Bukit Tinjauan.
    Air Kolam Ngalau Kuda Bincit (reported by Dubois 1888 : elephas, bos, rhino, cervus
    fauna recovered).
    7. Ngalau Simarasop= Ngalau Panjang = Ngalau Pinsi, Bukit Ngalau south east of
    Baso,Batang Agam through the Bukit Kubang Duo Baleh. Kec. Baso , desa Koto
    Tuo,Dusun Sungai Cubadak. Entrance seen.
    8. Ngalau Cumaning= Simangalo (Bukit Ngalau south east of Sungai Jernih)
    9. Ngalau Lidah Ayer (east of Sialang Indah. Reported by Dubois 1889- containing
    pongo, bos, tapirus, hystix, cervus, sus, hylobates, macaca, etc).
    10 Bukit Ngalau Cik Camping / Bukit Ngalau Cecil.
    11. Bukit Ngalau Gadang
    12. Underground water on Bukit Ngarai on Sei. Ambat on the Batang Manggis.
    !3. underground water Bukit Ngalau Jahat, stream sink cave (Bukit Ngalau Guci
    underground water).

    E. Caves in South Of Payakumbuh
    1. Ngalau Sangkar Puyuh
    2. Ngalau Rumbukit
    3. Ngalau Tawar
    4. Ngalau Gadang
    5. Ngalau Pulai
    6. Ngalau Sirangkiang
    7. Ngalau Gadang, in Bukit Batu asahan near Pekan Senayan Village , examined by
    P.Bellwood July 1980.
    8. Ngalau Panjang in Bukit Solok Kalumpang near Pekan Senayan, examined by P.Bellwood July 1980.

    F. Caves in Halaban (regency 50 Kota)
    1. Ngalau Batang Air Rasan, stream sink cave, Halaban near Kepalokoto. Entrance seen
    2. Ngalau Putih, fossil cave in Halaban, near Kepalokoto (examined)
    3. Ngalau Cari , marble quarryingm Halaban near kepalokoto (oral info).
    4. Bukit Ngalau Sundan
    5. Bukit Ngalau Simandalo
    6. Bukit Ngalau Jawi
    7. Bukit Balik Ngalau
    8. Bukit Ngalau Ro
    9. Bukit Ngalau Gadang
    10. Bukit ngalau Guci
    11. Bukit Ngalau Arpan
    12 Ngalau Air Timbu, near Halaban Tua
    13. underground water of Bukit Ranah Halaban
    14. Bukit Ngalau Payo or possible ngalau Pauh Tinggi.

    G. Caves in Pamasian Kecamatan Lintau Buo (regency Tanah Datar)
    1. Ngalau Nyawiek, Desa Pamasian, near Batang sInamar (oral info)
    2. Ngalau Pamasian
    3. Ngalau Pleyangan , resurgence cave, Kec Luhak (sago halaban) north of Pamasian..
    3,5 km explored.

    H. Caves along the River Pigago in Tanah Datar Regency.
    1. Pintu Ngalau, underground water with stream sink cave near kampong Pintu Ngalau,
    Pamasian Road , Kec Lintau- Tanah Datar.
    2. Underground water of Ngalau Upah.
    3. Ngalau Jambu, by Tapi Selo, (reported by Dubois 1889- fauna similar to Ngalau Lidah
    Ayer), In Kec Lintau Buo.
    4. Ngalau Gunja near Ngalau Lidah Ayer,
    5. Nalau Guo, North East of Sialang Indah , West of Bt.Sidayu.

    I.Caves near si Bolin / Si sawah near Kec. Lintau Buo- Tanah Datar
    1. Ngalau Bulan = Ngalau Panjang, near Kumanis South East of Tigo Jangko (Reported
    by Dubois August 1889- similar fauna as Ngalau Sampit)
    2. Nalau Sibolin near si sawah
    3. Nalau Panjang, near Kumanis, south east of Tigo Jangko or Tanjung Bonei. Possibly
    Ngalau Panjang = Ngalau Kepala Sawah Liat near sibalan, reported by Dubois
    November 1889- Rhinicerous humerous discovered.
    4. Bukit Ngalau Tiris
    5. Bukit Ngalau Tinggi, 2 km long south east of Sisawah
    6. Ngalau Antabung = Ngalau Antabung Indah, resurgence cave.
    7. Ngalau Harimau, south of sisawah.
    8. Bukit ngalau Buo , south of sisawah
    9. Ngalau Panjang on Sumpur river, north of sibolin, reported by Dubois 1889.
    10. Ngalau Lebawah, natural pit 55 m depth, reported by Dubois 1889, elephas femur
    recovered.
    11. Underground water Gunung Darat at headwater of sei Koto Tuo, 0,5 km west of
    sisawah connect with underground water sei .Tabuh
    12 Ngalau (no name) sisawah, active cave.
    13. Under groung water, ngalau Kompe, north of bukit Tambang Langsat
    14. Underground water on Sei Sarih near Si Duku
    15. Ngalau Puangan Hilir, cave in the lower course of Tabat Panjang, Kec Lintau. 1,5
    mapped by Deharveng.
    16. Ngalau Bingkiang, in Tabat Panjang
    17. Guo Lisun in Tabat Panjang
    18. Ngalau Tabat Panjang
    19, Ngalau Talang or Ngalau Sapan Kijang, in Lubuk Jantann, the greatest cave in Kec
    Lintau Buo.
    20. Ngalau Lado
    21. Ngalau Angit
    22. Ngalau Busuk.

    J. Caves near Buo (kec Lintau Buo) Tanah Datar.
    1. Ngalau Batang Pangian, great cave and active cave. (reported by Bock 1878, Dubois
    may 1889, examined by Geoff Pope in June 1979, P Bellwood 1980.)
    2. Ngalau Bandar = Ngalau Batang Siparok (reported by Dubois 1889 as similar to
    ngalau sampit)
    3.Ngalau Jawi
    4. Ngalau Batu Bulat near Balai tengah
    5. ngalau Air Janih, balai Tangah
    6. Ngalau Merah, active cave, balai tangah.
    7. Ngalau Jawi
    8. Ngalau Mantu, near Limau Hantu
    9. underground water, Taratak Limau Hantu
    10. Bukit Ngalau Bulan, south west Taparunggo
    11. Bukit Ngalau Abu, south west Taparunggo
    12 underground water Ngalau Kalam, active cave (deharveng, 2000)
    13. Ngalau Bintang, south west taparunggo
    14. underground water ngalau Tongkat Nabi, south west taparunggo
    15. Ngalau Taparunggo, active cave and explored.

    K. Caves in Gunung Ngalau Seribu, North or East of Si Biluru, east of Buo
    Kec.Lintau Buo, Tanah Datar
    1.Ngalau Sanduak, Sibiluru
    2. Ngalau Siamang, kotolonco, Sibiluru.
    3. Ngalau Sangki with spring, entrance seen.
    4. Ngalau Batang Sinamar, small cave and explored.
    5. Spring Batang Sinamar
    6. Ngalau batang Sitamoh, sink
    7. Ngalau Air sungai Pandah
    8. Bukit ngalau Putih
    9. Under ground water on Air Parabungan
    10. Bukit ngalau Manyoroji
    11. Bukit ngalau rajo, underground water. On Air Sitamu.
    12. Underground water Bukit Ngalau Putih
    13. Ngalau surat
    14. Ngalau batu bersurat, on eastern Batang sangki. Explored by deharveng et al. and
    active cave in sumpur kudus.
    15. Ngalau Sapan Kijang or ngalau talang , explored by Deharveng.
    16. Ngalau Ikan Sangki, active cave and mapped.
    17. Ngalau ikan sangki 2, explored by Deharveng
    18. Ngalau Langgang sianggang, under ground water.
    19. Ngalau Tinggi on Batang Sigunjo
    20. Under ground water on Bukit Ngalau Pamalaman Rajo
    21. Under ground water on Bukit Pamalaman Lobak or Pamalaman Panjang.
    22. Under ground Water south of Ngalau Kami on Batang Si Gunjo, explored by
    Deharveng.
    23. Ngalau Tanah in Taparunggo, mapped
    24. Under ground water west of Ngalau Tanah.
    25. Under ground Water , bukit ngalau Manyuruk
    26. Under ground Water, south of Bukit Ngalau Tanah.
    27. Under ground water of south Bukit Padang si Jaban and Bukit Pancalak si Galundi.
    28. Bukit Ngalau, south of Si Pur on the Batang Sario
    29. Bukit Ngalau Seribu
    30. Under ground Water, north of bukit Nyari kecil on the air Bulus
    31. Under ground water, north of Lurah
    32. Ngalau Kilat, feeding Air Bulus
    33. Grot, south of bukit Ngarai Patai
    34. Grot gunung Batu Patah
    35. Under ground water, south of Bukit Talago Punai on air Bulus
    36. Under ground water, south of bukit Ngarai Bardiri on air Lulus
    37. Under ground water,south of Bukit Kapur Mudik on air Lulus
    38. under ground water, west of guguk Tampat Rajo on Air Lulus.
    Ngalau Air Lulus or ngalau Kawai < explored by Deharveng, et al, 2000.
    39. ngalau sangki besar and ngalau sangki kecil, west of bukit ngalau Gadang , noted by
    Dubois 1888, examined by Peter Bellwood 1980.
    40. under ground water , east of Guguk Air Manis
    41. under ground water / grot, north of bukit Air Lulus on Batang Sangki
    42. grot , south of Guguk Malintang on Batang Sangki.
    43Bukit ngalau Gadang, east of piliang
    44. Bukit ngalau si Puding east of piliang.

    L.Caves in Region Sawah Lunto .
    1. ngalau bersurat
    2. bukit ngalau sigala, south of Sawah Lunto
    3. Bukit Ngalau Gadang, North West of Sawah Lunto
    4. Ngalau Janjian or Ngalau Talago Gunung, North of Sawah Lunto on Batang
    Sibrambang.
    5.Ngalau Sibrambang 2, west Sawah Lunto near Kaji.
    6. Ngalau Agung Agung, east of Kampung Sibrambang (dubois, March 1890)
    7. Ngalau Sibatie, bukit mengkapok in Nagari Sulit Air 9Dubois, March 1890)
    8. Ngalau Landak, fossil cave in Kubang.
    9. Ngalau Lunindai, Sawah Lunto
    10. Ngalau Talawi, Sijunjung
    11. Ngalau Sawah Lunto, active cave
    12. Ngalau Landak, Kubang has been explored.

    M. Caves in East of Danau Singkarak
    1. Puncak Ngalau, west of Tanjung Balit
    2. Ngalau Baringin, north east of Tanjung Balit
    3. Ngalau Pasuk, north west of Padang Ganting on Selu R
    4. Ngalau Kandang Batu near Sulit Air (Dubois, 1888)
    5. Bukit Ngalau Tinggi, north east os Solok

    N. Caves in West Of Danau Singkarang , by Paninggahan
    1. Bukit Ngalau Tinggi
    2. Bukit Ngalau Kalawar
    3. Ngalau Si Babantu along Sungai Ngalau Babantu , dubois, December 1888
    4. Ngalau Pala Pisang along Sungai Ngalau Babantu, Dubois, December 1888.
    5. Guo Inyiak Puti Biliarang, near desa Kubu Kerambil.
    6, Ngalau kaki Bukit, Padang Panjang, Gunung Bungsu
    7. Grot Si Bati Bati, near Sulit Air on East side of Lake (Dubois 1888)

    O. Caves in West Of Solok
    1. Bukit Ngalau 1
    2 Bukit Ngalau 2

    P. Caves in Padang Region
    1. Ngalau Kelelawar Padayo, 17 km from Padang, 2 km by foot.

    Q.Caves in Muko-Muko/ Siluka Region
    On Batang Kuantan, reported by Dubois 1889.
    1.Grot Muko Muko
    2. Under ground Water
    3. Bukit Ngalau Besurat
    4. Pintu Ngalau
    5. Ngalau Cigak
    6. Gunung Ngalau Seribu
    7. Sungai Ngalau Nan Panjang
    8. Talang NGalau, west of Muku Muko
    9. Ngalau Batu Bartagak on Batang Kulampi
    10. NGalau Tambang sepuluh, dubois , June 1889.

    R.Caves in Siluka Region
    1. Ngalau Palukahan
    2. Ngalau Lahan, silokat
    3. NGalau nan Randah or5 ngalau seribu, south of Silukah
    4. Ngalau Batu, east of Durian Gadang on Batang Kuantan
    5. Bukit Ngalau Sampir, south east of Siluka on Sungai Kuantan
    6. Bukit Ngalau Seribu, extending from muko muko region.
    7. Sungai Ngalau Nan Panjang, extending from Muko Muko Region.
    8. Gunung Ngalau LImau on Sungai Sagarik.
    9. Under ground Water, south of Gunung Air Tiris, large resurgence of Air Sagirik

    S. Caves Near Air Hangat/ Sijunjung
    1. Gunung Ngalau Agung, stream sink cave/ ngalau Laguang 7 km explored by Spanish
    team in desa Tanggalo
    2.Tanggalo, hot spring in Air Hangat, desa Tanggalo, entrance seen
    3. Bukit Ngalau Gadang
    4. Air Lurah Ngalau Gadang
    5. Grot, under ground on air pulasah
    6. Gunung Ngalau Gadang.
    7. Ngalau Pagar/ Pagu, exit on Batang Takung
    8. Ngalau Piring piring, south east of Air Hangat
    9. Ngalau Tiris, south east of Air Hangat
    10. Ngalau Mangan
    11. Under ground water Sungai Jarnih, near Gunung Kajai
    12. Ngalau Sijunjung

    T. Caves in Paruh Region
    1. Ladang ngalau Labah, north west Paruh
    2. Ngalau Sampir on Batang Nunuh
    3. Bukit Ngalau Sampir
    4. Ngalau Air Tiris, on Air Tiris, west of Lintabung
    5. Ngalau Paruh
    6, Ngalau Lingkaran Nago, north Gasing on Batang Hari.
    7. Bukit Ngalau, east of Bukit Sabalah
    8. Ngalau Basurat, north west of Sungai Durian, east of ngalau Seribu
    9. Ngalau Mansiu Gunung Guguk Anjing, near Kabi, Sinamar River, reported by Dubois
    July 1889.

    U.Caves in Kerinci Seblat National Park
    1. Gua Mesjid, north of Sungai Pinang, Near Sungai Manau, a village between Bangko
    and Sungai Penuh
    2. Gua Tiangko Panjang, excavated by Bronson and Asmar 1975. North of Sungai
    Manau, a village between Banmgko and Sungai Penuh, located 13 above Batang
    Tiangko, a tributary of Sungai Mesumai (food bone – rusa, turtle sheet, bird, fish,
    rodent teeth, snail shell.
    3. Gua tiangko Ulu.
    4. Gua Kasah, north of Sungaipenuh, east of Kersik tua/ sumpar Air Bento.
    5. Gua Belang, north east Danau Kerinci
    6. Ngalau Gadang, foothills of Gunung Rasam Bayang, north west Pesisir Selatan, within
    Natinal Park Seblat.

    II. Caves in South Sumatra.
    1.Goa Bulit Gumai, Lahat
    2. Goa Suruman Besar, Explored by Musper 1934.

    III. Caves in North Sumatra

    A.Caves in Bukit Lawang, Langkat
    1. Gua kelelawar, 1 km south of Bukit Lawang cottage
    2. Gua Burung, 2 km south of Bukit Lawang cottage
    3. Gua Pintu Angin
    4. Gua Marike, 5 km south of Simpang Tanjung Kasim, 30 km east of Bahorok.
    5. Gua Buaya, Tangkeham on Buluh River, north east of Bukit Lawang
    6. Goa Batu Katak, langkat (whitten et al, 1987)
    7. Goa Liang Pengurukan, Bahorok, Langkat 10 km, hole with chamber (Whitten et al, 1987, rhinolopus, megaderma and cynopterus.

    B. Caves in Brastagi
    1. Goa Kamar Bingung
    2. Goa Kotabuluh, bat cave used by local for guano, 30 km west of Kabanjahe (Meer
    Mohr 1936, Whitten et al 1987)
    3. Goa Liang Rampeh, near Penen south east of Sembahe (Whitten et al, 1987) noted
    fives other caves in the vicinity.
    4. Goa Liang Terusan
    5. Goa Sipegah
    6. Goa Balige, lake Toba

    C. . Cave near Balige (Meer Mohr 1936)

    D. Cave in Nias Island
    1. Gua Tugindrawa, 1 km Siawahili, 7 km from Gunung Sitoli.

    E. Cave In Natal
    1. Extensive Caves between Tabayung and Pondok Rambe, north of Natal.

    IV.Caves in Aceh
    A.Caves in Lam Peuek and Lhok Nga
    1. Goa Halu Hijau, large cave mouth at Padang Semen work, noted and photographed by
    Whitten et al 1987, Deharveng 2000.
    2. Goa Maniang, near Gua Hilup, Lhok Nga (Deharveng explored in 2000.)
    3. Goa Mangsa at Padang Semen Work (Whitten, et al 1987)
    4. Goa Hilup, stream sink cave near Lhok Nga (Deharveng 2000) explored.
    5. Goa Sementua, active cave, lhok Nga (Deharveng explored 2000)
    6. Goa Kreueng Rang, active cave, Lhok Nga (DEharveng, 2000)
    7. Goa Kelelawar, 1km north of Lam Peuek.
    8. Goa Sarang, 2 km north of Lam Peuek

    B. Caves in Pantai Cemara
    1. Goa Alu Groh, 5 km inland from Desa Lepeung, 9 km south of Lhok Nga, along
    Kreueng Sarah. Possibly Gua Sungai Leupung 9Deharveng, 2000)
    2. Goa Kreueng Riting, active cave near Leupung Relay Tank (deharveng, 2000)
    3. Goa Lhok Ek, Lhok Nga Relay Tank (Deharveng, 2000).
    4. Goa Jantang, near Desa Jantang, Loong.
    5. Goa Raya, near Desa Paroy Indah
    6. Mata aye, spring (Deharveng, 2000)
    7. Gua Puyu Kreueng, resurgence cave, Lhok Nga, entrance seen (DEharveng, 2000)
    8. Goa Raba Hung ,Kreueng Hung (Deharveng ,2000)
    9. Goa Ulee (Deharveng, 2000)

    C.Caves in Pulau Weh
    1.Kamprek Caves
    2. Goa Sarang, near Pantai Lhong Angen, Iboih Rec. Area.

    D. Caves in Pidie
    1. Goa Tujuh, near Minasah and Kayee Kuniet Villages.
    2. Meunasah Lobang, Desa Meunasah (Deharveng, 2000).
    3. Cave no name in Meunasah (deharveng, 2000)
    Gua Krueng Desa Meunasah Lhok, near Ghaki Gurute (DEharveng, 2000)
    4. Gua Pari, active cave in Desa Tchot (Deharveng, 2000)
    5. Gua Manjang, Desa Keutapang (Deharveng, 2000)

    E. Langsa Cave, langse is 58 km south of Sigli.

    F. Cave in Kuala Simpang, near Langsa east Aceh.
    1. Goa Kejuruan Muda
    2. Goa Pintu Kwari.

    G. Cave in Takengon
    1. Goa Loyong Koro, buffalo cave, near Toweran
    2. Goa Loyong Putri Pukes, 2 km east of Kabayakan, 10 km from Takengon

    H. Caves along Lower Alas ,Gunung Leuser N.P Used by Rafter for shelter.

    I.Caves on West coast of Aceh
    1. Large cave,Gua Teumiga, desa Ujung Suden, 1 km north of Lamno.

    \2.. Caves near Pantai Lhok Geulampang
    3. Gua Muslimin, simpang Tiga, Sawang near Tapak Tuan (Deharveng, 2000)
    4. Gua Kicirian, Desa Tring MendoroTunung, Dusun Darur Makmur near Tapak tuan
    (Deharveng, 2000)
    5. Cave shaft, south of Tapak tuan (Deharveng,2000)
    Mata air, spring Ujung Batu (Deharveng, 2000)
    6. Gua Air Pinang, Dusun Air Pinang, Sungai Alur Kering (Deharveng, 2000)
    7. Goa Kalam, 3 km from Jampu Apha (Deharveng, 2000)
    8. Goa Panjupian, active cave , Desa Panjupian, Kec. Tapak Tuan (Deharveng, 2000)
    9. Gua Sawastingkeum, active cave near Bakongan, Desa Sawastingkeum (Deharveng,
    2000)
    10. Cave Ujung Batu (Deharveng, 2000)

    J. Caves In Banyak Island
    1. Cave Pulau Ujung Batu, near Teluk Nibung
    2. Pasir Panjang Caves, on the west coast of Pulau Tuangku with bat and swiftlet colonies
    3. Goa Tambegu, on the east coast of pulau Tuangku.

    Source :

    Gerrell M. Drawhorn
    Departement of Anthropology
    California State University
    6000 J Street
    Sacramento CA 95819-6106

    Piltdown@saclink.csus.edu

    http://www.csus.edu/indiv/d/drawhorng/

    Re-written by:

    Marjohan
    Guru SMA
    Jl. Pramuka 05, Batusangkar 27211
    West Sumatra

    marjohanusman@yahoo.com

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